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Testing Ultrasound to Track, Monitor Patients
A Boston hospital is testing an ultrasound tracking system that can determine a patient's location and monitor vital signs.
Mar 15, 2006—Hospitals use ultrasound technology for a range of diagnostic processes, such as evaluating fetus health, diagnosing some forms of cancer, imaging the heart and evaluating flow in blood vessels. Now, Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital is testing ultrasound as a means of monitoring the location and vital signs of select patients in its emergency department. The test is part of the Scalable Medical Alert and Response Technology (SMART) project, a collaborative effort by researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), funded through the National Library of Medicine. The goal of the project is to explore the use of a scalable location monitoring system that links with vital-sign telemetry to alert health-care providers of potentially dangerous changes in patient health, even if those patients are in a large or ad hoc area, such as in field hospitals established in response to natural disasters.
"Originally, this project was designed for large disaster response, with many patients who need to be identified and located, and whose vitals would need to be monitored, so we could tell who was getting better and who was getting worse," says Tom Stair, an attending physician in Brigham and Women's emergency department and part of the SMART team. "We envisioned something that could be brought on-site in ambulances, with devices that would track patients using GPS. But I suggested the [emergency department] waiting room would be best place to start testing a system like this."
Since GPS signals can't be received indoors, the architects of the SMART program started looking at RFID technologies for location-tracking. Stair says the SMART project staff considered the RFID patient and asset-tracking indoor positioning systems already deployed at Brigham and Women's and other hospitals, including Massachusetts General. Those systems use tags that transmit ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic signals read by specialized interrogators or standard Wi-Fi access points.
Instead of selecting an RF UHF system for the ER patient-tracking experiment, Brigham and Women's decided to test an ultrasound system from Sonitor Technologies, based in Hopewell Junction, N.Y. The battery-powered Sonitor tags transmit 20 kHz to 40 kHz acoustic signals to receivers located in the ER waiting area. Through frequency modulation, each tag communicates a unique signal to the receivers, using algorithms to read the signals and then forward their IDs, over the hospital's existing wireless LAN, to a central server. The Sonitor tags are triggered by movement, so only when a tag is moved does it send its signals.
Stair says the group chose an ultrasound patient-tracking system to see how well it would work compared with the hospital’s already RFID indoor positioning system, and in conjunction with the SMART wireless patient monitoring. He notes theoretical concerns that UHF radio signals could interfere with other wireless technologies being used in the hospital, and that the radio frequency signals could suffer from interference caused by metallic objects in close proximity. But Rick Hampton, wireless communications manager of Partners HealthCare System—an integrated health care system, of which Brigham and Women's is a founding member—says that while passive (battery-less) tags do suffer signal interference from metallic objects, the active (battery-powered) RFID tags used for asset and patient tracking in hospital settings do not. Stair also notes that the RFID indoor positioning system the hospital is using for asset tracking, provided by Lawrence, Mass.-based Radianse, neither causes nor suffers from interference with other wireless systems in the hospital.
RFID-based indoor positioning systems from Radianse and other vendors, including AeroScout, Ekahau and PanGo Networks, associate the location of the interrogator or Wi-Fi access point that reads a tag's signal with the location of the tag. The Sonitor system uses the same basic premise to locate its ultrasound tags. Ultrasound signals, however, can't travel through walls, floors and ceilings as easily as UHF radio signals can. For ultrasound systems, Hampton notes, this means a receiver needs to be installed in each room being monitored.
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