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RFID Detects Workloads of Bumblebee Foragers

The HF RFID technology—consisting of a tag on each bee's back and a reader at a foraging chamber's entrance—helped University of Arizona researchers learn how labor is divided among foragers within a hive.
By Claire Swedberg

Two Microsensys MAJA readers were installed at each of the 1.5-inch-diameter tubes that allowed bumblebees to enter and leave the two chambers. At the point at which the readers were attached, the tube narrowed to approximately 2 centimeters (0.8 inch) in width, thereby ensuring a close enough proximity to the tag to capture the bee tag's ID. Because the bee passed two readers in each tube, the system could identify the direction in which the bee was moving—in or out of the chamber, based on which reader captured the tag ID first.

The university researchers developed their own software to capture and interpret the read data, comprising a total of 82,609 read events. Once the information was collected, the researchers conducted a series of measurements of each bee's size, wing span and antenna length, as well as other details, and that data was stored along with the tag's unique ID number, thereby connecting it to the bee's activity records.

Two readers were installed at each of the tubes that allowed bumblebees to enter and leave the chambers. The dark boxes where the tubes meet the wood plank are the readers.
The results indicated that the size of the bee and its antennae did influence foraging rates, and that individual workers tend to specialize in one of the two foraging activities during any given day, then switch to the other chamber after a span of time. The observations also revealed that individual bumblebee workers differ vastly in terms of their foraging activity. In fact, Russell says, there was a 40-fold difference in foraging efforts between some bees. About 17 percent of the bees were collecting approximately 50 percent of the total pollen and nectar. The technology also enabled researchers to study how long the trips took, based on the length of time that a particular bee spent within the chamber, as well as how much time passed between its departure from the chamber and its subsequent return. What's more, they could determine how long a bee foraged before taking a rest.

The results yielded several surprises, Russell reports. "The specialization and switching of specializations were surprising," he says, adding, "We didn't expect such an extreme variation in foraging efforts."

There were a few challenges with the RFID technology use as well, Russell says. The primary challenge involved the application of tags to the bees, followed by ensuring that the reader captured each passing tag's ID. The read range was several millimeters, he adds, noting that a longer-range RFID system with more readers might be easier to work with for other projects.

Russell is now a postdoctoral scholar at the University of Pittsburg, but says he hopes, at some point, to launch another bumblebee behavior study using RFID technology. He is specifically interested in navigation patterns among other area of insect behavior.

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