Can a transmitter be fitted into each hole that would send a signal to a receiver, thereby detailing the distance a ball travels?
No, for several reasons. Passive radio frequency identification tags have a read range of only up to 30 feet or so with conventional RFID readers. In addition, it is difficult to determine the distance between a tag and reader, since there are often radio waves reflecting around within the environment. Active RFID systems, ultra-wideband (UWB) RFID and passive ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) systems that use phased-array antennas could extend the read range, but you would need to install a large number of readers or reader antennas around the golf course. The cost of the readers, and of running power and networking cables to the readers on each hole, would be prohibitively expensive. GPS would be a much better option, in my opinion.
—Mark Roberti, Founder and Editor, RFID Journal